Five Skills You Need To Become An ML Engineer


Today, cutting-edge technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), and Deep Learning are bringing in the age of Technological Revolution. These technologies are helping shape not just our present but also laying the foundations for a better tomorrow. Companies across the world are now investing in these technologies to foster innovation, thus creating the demand for skilled and talented data professionals.

Machine Learning is a branch of Artificial Intelligence that enables machines to perform advanced tasks like prediction, image/voice recognition, robotics control, and so on without being exclusively programmed for those tasks. ML technology is mainly algorithm-oriented, that is, it aims to create such algorithms as can ’learn’ from the behavior of data and adapt accordingly to produce the best possible outcomes. In this respect, ML is somewhat similar to data mining – both of these fields are interested in sifting through data to uncover valuable insights and patterns hidden within data. However, ML has the edge over data mining.

While aspiring to begin a career in Machine Learning is undoubtedly commendable, you must first develop the requisite skills that are demanded of machine learning specialists. Here are the five skills that every machine learning engineer should develop.

  1. Fundamental Concepts of Computer Science and Programming

If you wish to be an ML engineer, you need to have a strong background in Computer Science. You need to be well-versed with core concepts of Computer Science such as data structures (trees, graphs, stacks, multi-dimensional arrays, etc.), algorithms, computability and complexity concepts such as big-O notation, approximate algorithms, NP-complete problems, and much more. Then again, you need to have a flair for high-level programming languages such as C++, Java, R, Ruby, JavaScript, Python, Perl, etc.

  1. Probability and Statistics

Machine Learning is closely associated with Probability and Statistics. In fact, probability concepts such as conditional probability, Naive Bayes rule, Markov Decision Processes, Hidden Markov Models, etc., make up the core of various ML algorithms. Statistics, on the other hand, provides the foundation for distributions, measures, and analysis techniques that are required for building and analyzing data models.

  1. Data Modeling and Evaluation

Data Modelling is the technique of estimating the implicit structure of a particular dataset to extract meaningful information from the data and to predict hidden trends from within. In this process, you have to evaluate the relevance and efficacy of the data model continually and to do this you must choose such an accuracy measure and evaluation strategy that best fits the data model in question.

  1. ML Libraries

To be able to implement ML algorithms appropriately, you need to be familiar with ML libraries or APIs such as Theano, Spark, TensorFlow, and Scikit-learn, to name a few. However, for these APIs to function optimally, you need to have extensive knowledge about classification algorithms like decision trees, neural nets, support vector machines, etc. The more you practice with these algorithms and APIs, the better will be your grasp on machine learning. You can try ML challenges on platforms such as Kaggle that will introduce you to a vast range of complex algorithmic problems.

  1. Software Engineering and System Design

An ML engineer is a software engineer and machine learning expert rolled into one. Essentially, an ML engineer’s core task is to build innovative software. To develop a software, you need to learn how to integrate smaller fragments to create the bigger picture. Thus, the software you create should be compatible with your system design. It should be scalable, flexible, and efficient so that it can adapt according to the ever-mounting volumes of data.

While mastering these major skills is a must for building a career in Machine Learning, you must also never forget that it is still a developing field. Thus, it is important that you constantly update yourself with the latest trends and innovations in ML and upskill accordingly.

If you are interested in building a career in Machine Learning, our Machine Learning course – Cognizance is what you need. At Coding Ninjas, our expert and qualified panel of instructors will ensure that by the end of the course, you are fully aware of the nitty-gritty of machine learning.

Basic C++ Interview Questions


C++ is general-purpose, object-oriented programming (OOP) language that was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup. An extension of the C programming language, C++ combines the features of both low-level and high-level languages and is hence considered to be a hybrid, intermediate level programming language.

Even today, C++ is considered to be a requisite skill for CS students and engineers. It is one of the most challenging programming languages since when writing programs with C++, one has to do extensive thinking. Hence, to crack a C++ interview successfully, you must be well prepared.

To help you crack your next C++ interview, we’ve created a list of some of the most commonly asked questions during interviews.

  1. Name the basic components of OOP language?

The essential components of an object-oriented programming language are:

  • Objects
  • Classes
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Message passing
  • Dynamic Binding
  • Data abstraction and encapsulation
  1. How is C++ different from C?

Since C++ is an extension of C, most programs written in C are compatible with C++ too. The primary differences between the two languages are:

  • While C is a procedural programming language, C++ supports both procedural and OOP features.
  • As C++ is an OOP language, it supports features like inheritance, templates, classes, function overloading, and virtual functions, to name a few. C programming language is devoid of these functions.
  • While in C exception handling is done in traditional ‘if-else’ technique, in C++ exception handling is accomplished at the language level.
  • In C++ input and output operations are performed through streams (cin and cout), whereas in C, scanf() and printf() are used for input and output functions.
  1. What is inheritance?

Inheritance is the technique of deriving a new class known as ‘derived’ from an old class known as ‘base class.’ With the help of this process, you don’t need to write a code from scratch; you can reuse an existing code by modifying it.

  1. What are virtual functions?

Virtual functions are integrated with inheritance to ensure that the correct function has been deployed to point to a particular object. Instead of naming them according to the type of reference or pointer, virtual functions are named according to the kind of object being referred to. The functions are named with a virtual keyword in the base class.

  1. What are the C++ access specifiers?

Access specifiers define how functions and variables (members) can be accessed outside of a given class. They can be classified into three types:

  • Private: The functions and variables that are labeled as ‘private’ can be accessed only within the same class and not outside their declared class.
  • Public: When members are labeled as ‘public,’ they can be accessed from anywhere.
  • Protected: Protected members can be accessed only by the declared class its child classes.
  1. Define Friend class and Friend function in C++.

A friend class can access both private and protected members of other classes in which it is specified as a friend. For instance, a LinkedList class may be declared as a friend of Node to access the private members of Node.

Like a Friend class, a Friend function can be granted access to private and protected members of other classes. A friend function can either be a method of another class or a global function. It should be kept in mind that Friend classes and functions should be used only for specific purposes to prevent the drop in the encapsulation value of different classes in OOP.

  1. What is s Static Member?

Static Member is a keyword in C++ that is used to bestow unique characteristics to a specific element. Static members cannot be virtual, and they also do not possess ‘this’ pointer. Static elements are allotted a storage space in the static storage area. While they need to be stored only once in a program lifetime, their life scope equals the program lifetime.

  1. What is a default constructor?

Default constructors are those that do not accept any parameters. For instance, if a default constructor is needed in a particular class (say, class A) where there exists no user-defined constructor, the compiler will implicitly declare a default constructor without any parameter – A::A(). This constructor is devoid of any constructor initializer and a null body.

  1. What are tokens?

Tokens are the smallest individual units of a program written in C++. They are as follows:

  • Identifiers
  • Constants
  • Keywords
  • Strings
  • Operators
  1. What is an iterator class?

Iterator class allows you to access classes that are inside containers that hold data structures, classes, and abstract data types. Iterators are crucial to understanding the functioning of C++ Standard Template Library (STL) since it offers a way to access data stored in the container classes, for example, maps, list, vector, and so on.

Want to get an in-depth understanding of C++ and its underlying concepts? Join Coding Ninjas today! Our trained and dedicated team of instructors will ensure that by the time you finish the course, you’ve mastered the art of C++.

7 Rookie Mistakes Every Android Developer Should Avoid


Ever since Android took over the market by storm, it has emerged as one of the most lucrative platforms for app developers. And thanks to the Internet, developers can now access a host of cheap app development tools and connect with the massive online community of developers. While there never has a better time to become an Android app developer, one must keep in mind that developing mobile applications is quite different from developing web apps. When freshers in Android app development make the shift from desktop to mobile, they often end up making some common mistakes that affect the overall efficiency of their apps.

We’ve compiled a list of seven common rookie mistakes that every Android developer should avoid.

  1. Ignoring The Android Documentation

The Android Documentation is the holy grail for every Android developer because it comprises of numerous helpful tutorials, training videos, informative guides, and other essentials necessary for building Android apps. Thus, if you choose to ignore the Android documentation, you will miss out on expert tips and tricks to develop steady and reliable Android apps. You can either download the documentation with the help of SDK tools or read it online.

  1. Not Building The Compatibility Quotient With Android Tools

Android SDK is replete with helpful tools that help you build great apps. While some tools allow you to create innovative designs and excellent layouts, there are also command line tools that can be used to gain easy access to the device hardware and emulators. Apart from this, Android SDK also consists of tools that help you enhance the performance of your apps and fine tune them. As an Android developer, if you do not familiarize yourself with these tools, you’ll not only have to put in more time and effort, but also you’ll miss out on enormous opportunities to improve your app.

  1. Not Connecting With The Android Community

While building apps, you cannot expect the process to be seamless and free from challenges. There will come times where you may find yourself stuck at a particular step and cannot figure out what to do. Instead of cracking your head incessantly over the issue, reach out to the helpful and proactive Android developer communities such as StackOverflow. You can also try other resources such as Google mailing lists and tutorials available on Android Development Center.

  1. Thinking Android Development Can Be Accomplished In A Jiffy

If you think that developing mobile applications is a matter of little time and effort, you are mistaken. Like web apps, mobile app too requires innovative and functional specs and hence, you need to incorporate advanced bug monitoring system, QA testers, and a release/maintenance strategy for Android apps. The aim is to build apps that are completely optimized for mobile devices and can run seamlessly on Android, and this requires dedicated effort.

  1. Not Integrating The OS Correctly With The Android Platform

One of the most exceptional features of the Android platform is that it offers numerous choices to developers to integrate an app not just with the system but also other apps. As a developer you must ensure that your app is adequately integrated with the OS and hence, you need to stress on small features such as content providers, home screen widgets, intent signals, and so on. When you take care to integrate such tiny details into your app, you create a unique user experience for your users.

  1. Vaguely Defining The App Configuration Details

Often it so happens that app developers do not publish or update the information about app configuration in the Android Manifest. When marketing an app, it is fundamental to enlist all the details about the app features and the device traits they support. Also, developers often demand unnecessary permissions on the Android Manifest, which can lead to faulty app publication on the Android app market, ultimately causing a drop in the user ratings.

  1. Leaving Apps Idle After Launching Them

If you wish to stay relevant in the app market, you just cannot leave your apps idle. Applications must be continuously updated to improve user experience, eliminate bugs and glitches, and to the enhance their overall efficiency. When you do not update and maintain your apps, they fail to keep up with the dynamic trends in the market.

So, now that you know what mistakes you should avoid while developing Android apps, you can steer clear of such pitfalls. And if you wish to step up your app development game, join the Coding Ninjas advanced Android app development course – Envision, today!

Competitive Programming And The Edge It Offers


Competitive programming is a sport in which aspiring programmers compete with participants from around the world or from a local area to try to solve complex algorithmic problems according to a specified set of rules. It has gained a lot of attention over the years, and today, competitive programming is hosted and supported by the magnates of the IT industry such as Apple, Google, and Facebook.

There are many benefits of competitive programming. Developers across the globe unanimously agree that competitive programming helps you become a better developer and provides you with an edge over your competitors. Let’s look at the benefits of competitive programming.

  1. Helps You Stay Focused To Find Solutions Faster

In a competition, you have to compete against several participants, and hence, there remains a significant amount of pressure on you. As you actively take part in such contests, you gradually tend to improve your performance under stressful conditions by learning how to stay focused and concentrated on your tasks. You become more disciplined, and ultimately you can find faster and accurate solutions.

  1. Developing Bug-Free Codes

As you participate in competitive programming contests, over time, you become familiar with specific bugs that hinder the efficacy of your codes. For instance, issues like array indices growing out of bounds, floating point precision, and so on. The more you solve, the better you become at overcoming these obstacles. Since you are faced with complex algorithmic problems in these competitions, you learn how to optimize your code for the best outcomes.

  1. Prepares You For A Career In Coding

Participating in coding contests introduces you to a whole new world of programming, complex problems, and puts your programming skills to test. These competitions are an excellent way of upskilling. When you participate in contests, you get to know your key strengths and weaknesses. So, you get a chance to work on your weaknesses and come back with confidence the next time. Eventually, you’ll realize that you’ve already mastered the things that are essential for building a successful career in coding.

  1. Inculcates The Virtue Of Teamwork

In competitive programming, you are required to collaborate with your team members to solve the tasks handed to you. When working as a team, you learn how to open up to the ideas of your teammates, you learn new approaches to solve problems, and most importantly, you learn how to function as one unit by compensating for one another’s weaknesses. As a team, you learn to divide the responsibilities among yourselves and help find the most efficient way to complete your task. Companies today highly value the virtue of team spirit. Thus, if you know how to function efficiently within a team, chances are that you’ll land a good job at a reputed company.

  1. You Become A Desirable Candidate

Our world is increasingly becoming a technology-driven world where the demand for skilled programmers and software developers is ever on the rise. Competitive programming is the perfect hunting ground for large software MNCs to find talented and versatile coders. As we’ve mentioned before, companies like IBM, Apple, Facebook, and Google actively follow these contests. So, participating in them will bring you under their radar. And if you emerge as a winner, your chances of being hired by a good company increases manifold.

Other than the benefits discussed above, competitive programming also gives you an edge over your competitors in any coding interview you can think of. Being quick to come up with the most efficient solution is something that will set you apart from your peers and it can be mastered through thorough competitive programming!

So, how about giving competitive programming a try? If you find yourself struggling, hop right in at Coding Ninjas where our specialized online course on Competitive Programming will get you up and running!

8 reasons why Ruby should be your first language!


Every aspiring programmer is faced with one fundamental question – “Which programming language should I begin with?”

While Java – one of the most widely used programming languages in the world – is backed by a massive developer community, Ruby on Rails (RoR) is rapidly gaining traction among the developer community. But first, don’t harbor the misconception that Ruby on Rails is the same as Ruby. RoR is a software development framework specially designed to support Ruby. Essentially, RoR is an assortment of unique shortcuts written in Ruby that allow developers to build web applications much more quickly and efficiently. Websites such as Basecamp, Airbnb, Twitter, Scribd, Groupon, Kickstarter, Soundcloud, Shopify, Crunchbase, and Slideshare are all built on Ruby!

Here are ten reasons why Ruby on Rails should be your preferred choice of programming language.

  1. Open Source

RoR is an open source framework that offers perks like free licensing and free downloading of source codes. Furthermore, RoR is compatible with all operating systems and browser.

And if that’s not enough for you, RoR is backed by an enormous and active developer community. From conferences and meetups to online forums like Stack Overflow, you are sure to find RoR developers at every major tech event and hackathons you visit. So, if you are ever stuck anywhere, you could always reach out to the RoR community.

  1. Beginner-Friendly

The fact that Ruby has a pretty simple syntax makes it the ideal programming language for beginners. Not only is it very logical, it also comes with an excellent readability quotient. It enables you to write codes without adding separate comments or help texts within your code. Thus, it is undoubtedly one of the most beginner-friendly programming languages one can ever come across.

  1. Enhances Productivity

RoR is a self-documenting software framework, and hence, developers belonging from any programming platform can choose a RoR project and easily understand its content. Also, the code readability of RoR is excellent. It allows web developers to concentrate on specific issues rather than altering the framework, thereby promoting speedy development solutions.

Overall, RoR increases the productivity of developers, allowing them to launch web applications way more conveniently within a short span of time.

  1. Flexible With Full-Stack Tools

RoR is well-integrated with tools that allow developers to modify codes of existing web apps. Whether you want to add new features or make alterations in data models, RoR makes everything easy. Furthermore, RoR framework facilitates both front and back-end development. Thus, with RoR you can design a complete web application without having to delegate the front-end or back-end development task to anyone else.

Additional bonus – when you learn to code with RoR, you are introduced to HTML/CSS, Javascript, and of course Ruby.

  1. Fast

Apart from being a beginner-friendly platform, RoR is comparatively faster than other development frameworks because:

It allows web developers to reuse existing code thereby eliminating the need to developing a code from scratch.

RoR strictly follows the motto of ‘Convention over Configuration.’ It offers a plethora of resourceful libraries having pre-designed templates that allow developers to add any functionality within their codes. This way it saves a significant amount of time of developers that they would end up spending on configuring setup files.

Ruby is an open source OOP language that allows developers to utilize the vast library of source code templates of the RoR community framework.

  1. Cost Efficient

As mentioned before, RoR is an open source framework with no license charges. It consists of all automation tools that can help eliminate a lot of tasks associated with development projects. Thus, it a very cost-efficient and powerful tool not only for web developers but also for SMB projects.

  1. Facilitates Good Development

RoR is founded on the principles of proper web development. It encourages responsible web designing and development practices, that is the three ‘C’s – Compact, Clean, and Comprehensive coding practices. Moreover, RoR fosters Representational State Transfer (REST). Hence, developers can use RoR to organize their web applications based on standard resources and HTTP texts.

  1. It Scales Seamlessly

Given that the ultimate aim of every website is to gain visitors, RoR framework is perfect for accomplishing this. Since REST architecture is deeply ingrained in the Rails framework, scalability is not an issue with RoR. REST ensures that your website connects seamlessly with your potential audience. Dispelling all misconceptions about scalability on RoR framework, Tobias Lutke, CEO of Shopify states:

“It’s crazy that people are suggesting Shopify has been successful despite rails. Shopify has been successful because of rails!”

Come and aboard the Ruby train with us! We offer comprehensive programmes around Web Development using Ruby on Rails. Our courses are designed to start from scratch and take you all the way to the top. Still confused?! Check out our courses now!