Android interview questions for beginners



Any interview experience is often followed by jitters and nervousness. So, if you’re sitting for an Android interview, allow us to get your nervousness in control by walking you through the 10 most frequently asked Android interview questions for beginners:

  1. What do you mean by Android? Also, explain the main components.

Android is an open-sourced OS that enables the development of mobile applications. It is based on Linux and allows users to create and run applications on mobile with the rich high-end components it has. Android has the following main components:

– Linux Kernel
– Android framework
– Android applications
– Libraries

These components enable the developer to create high-end applications which provide all the facilities in a single application with amazing look and feel.

2. What are the important items in an Android project and explain the importance of XML based layouts?

The most important items of any Android project are as follows:
– Androidmanifest.xml
– Build.xml
– bin/
– src/
– res/
– assets/

The two XML files are helpful in providing a consistent layout. They give developers a standard graphical definition format. Generally, all the layout details are placed in these files and other items are placed in the source files.

3. Briefly explain the files and folders that are created during Android project creation.

Src – It contains the java source code for the newly created project. The code for the application that is to be created is also written in this file. It should be made available under the name of the project.
Assets – This folder contains all the relevant information regarding HTML and text files and databases.

Gen – This folder contains the file. This file is generated by the compiler and references the resources that are found in the project. This should not be modified as it is computer-generated.
Android library – This folder contains an android.jar file. This file contains all the libraries required for creating an Android application.
Bin – It contains the .apk file that is created by ADT during the code build process.
Res – This folder contains all the resource files used by the application. It contains subfolders like drawable, menu, layout, values, etc.


  1. What is ANR? What are the precautions to be taken to avoid ANR in an application?

    ANR is a dialog that Android shows when an application isn’t responding. It’s short for Application Not Responding. Usually, this state is achieved when the application is working on many tasks on the main thread and has been unresponsive for a long period of time.

Take care of the following things to avoid ANR:

  1. Ensure that there are no infinite loops in case of complex calculations.
  2. Define HTTP timeout for all web services and API calls in order to ensure that the server does not stop responding.
    3) Use IntentService ifthere are many background tasks. They should be taken off the main UI thread.
    4) Keep all database and long-running network operations on a different thread.

    5. Write code for a Toast with the message  “Hello, this is a Toast”.

Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), “Hello, this is a Toast”,

6. Write code to generate a button dynamically.

protected void onCreate(Bundle newInstanceState) {


Button button = new Button(this);




7. What is AIDL? What are the different data types that AIDL supports?

AIDL is short for Android Interface Definition Language. It is an interface between a client and a service that allows them to communicate using interprocess communication (IPC). It involves breaking the objects into smaller parts that allows Android to understand those objects. This happens because a process cannot access memory of other processes that are running.

Types of data supported by AIDL are:

all data types like int, long, char, Boolean.

8. How would you check for the presence of a Compass sensor on the system using the hasSystemFeature() method?

The sensor framework that forms a part of Android package has Sensor and SensorManager classes. But these classes do not provide the hasSystemFeature() method. So they cannot be used for evaluating a system’s capabilities. The PackageManager class can, in fact, be used to find out information about the application packages available on a given device. One way of checking the presence of a Compass sensor on the system is
PackageManager myCompass = getPackageManger();
If (!myCompass.hasSystemFeature(PackageManager.FEATURE_SENSOR_COMPASS))
// This device lacks a compass, disable the compass feature

9. Name some exceptions in android?
– Inflate Exception- This exception is thrown by an inflator on error conditions.
– Surface.OutOfResourceException – This Exception is thrown when a surface couldn’t be created or resized.
– SurfaceHolder.BadSurfaceTypeException– This exception is thrown from lockCanvas() when called on a Surface whose type is SURFACE_TYPE_PUSH_BUFFERS.
– WindowManager.BadTokenException – This Exception is thrown when trying to add a view whose WindowManager.LayoutParams token is invalid.


  1. What is the difference between Serializable and Parcelable? Which is the best approach in Android?

While developing applications we often need to transfer data from one activity to another. This data needs to be included in a corresponding intent object. Some additional actions are also required to make the data suitable for transfer. For doing that the object should be serializable or parseable. Serializable is a standard Java interface. It is a simple approach where you simply mark a class serializable by implementing the interface and Java automatically serializes it. Reflection is used during the process and a lot of additional objects are created. This leads to a lot of garbage collection and poor performance.
Parcelable interface is a part of Android SDK where you implement the serialization yourself. Reflection is not used during this process and no garbage is created. It is faster because it is optimized for usage on android development, and shows better results.

So, that’s all the basic questions you need to know before sitting for any Android interview. If you stumbled in any of them, we recommend you check out the Android development course offered by Coding Ninjas. It’ll not only clear your basics, but also help you scale beyond.


How to deal with an interview rejection and bounce back stronger?


There’s always an excitement that runs through you every time you get called for an interview. That is followed by nervous energy and then weeks of anticipation. And what if, after all this, all you get is “Thank for you for applying…”?

It feels jerked around – you were given a chance and then it got snatched, just like that. This leads to an array of emotions being set up, ranging from disappointment to despair.

But as much as we’d want to avoid it, it’s a part of our life. And an essential one, if we may. It brings with it an immense potential for your personal and professional growth. So, if you’ve experienced one (and were unable to sanely deal with it) or if you’re going through one – keep the following few things in mind. These will not only stop it from affecting you beyond a limit, but also ensure that you learn from it, and eventually bounce back stronger.

1. It doesn’t define you

Despite knowing that a job rejection shouldn’t be taken personally, it’s often difficult to do so. If the rejection (or the thought of it, for those who’re untouched yet) makes you wonder about your capabilities as a whole, you’ve pretty much let it define you.

And that’s okay. We all have been there.

But, if we put things in perspective employers generally pick the candidate that fits their precise needs. That counts for a lot of things, including your qualification, experience, skills, and many more.

In fact, if there are 10 people sitting for an interview and if they chose just 1, are the other 9 any less?

And to place your entire self-worth in the hands of people is self-sabotaging. When you are turned down for a job, it is not your value that is being rejected; rather, the interviewers may perceive you as not meeting their needs in some way. Perhaps you lack the experience they were seeking, or maybe you were missing some idiosyncratic trait they were looking for. Or just maybe you were off that day and said something goofy. Either way, none of it reflects your self-worth.

2. Knock the job off its pedestal.

No matter how lucrative a job may seem at first, every job has its drawbacks. And if you were turned down for a position you were so eagerly wanting, consider that the job may not be good for you either.

Perhaps there are some skills you need to acquire that the job may not have given you, or there is another position or job that will actually take your career higher. Keep giving other interviews a shot and don’t let any job role/position get to your head. At the end of the day, it’s just a job, and there’s always a learning curve when it comes to interviews.

3. Get good at rejection.

If you’re the one to want to improve your life by putting yourself out there and taking risks, you’re likely to face rejection. Nothing is smooth, and there will be hurdles along the way. Facing rejections is a sign that you’re actually on to something. Of course, this isn’t something that you’ll say to yourself immediately after being rejected – that is the moment of introspection. But, if some time has passed, and the rejection still disturbs you and the only thing it has taught you is sorrow, you need to consider that it’s forcing you to learn to accept it while moving forward.

4. Make the interview process work for you.

When you’re rejected from a job interview, it tends to feel like you put in so many efforts just for them to go in vain. Especially if the whole process was long, gruesome, and drawn out. But, if you really think that you can make the interview work in your favor, you are less inclined to feel like you are left with nothing.

The best way to get the most out of any interview process is to consider that you’ve learned a lot from your experience. Further, you can use that learning to enhance your career pursuits. Just by taking part in the interview process, you are practicing interview skills, and also clearing the concepts required to bag a job. And believe it or not, you’re also building a lot of connections this way. Use all these to make the future interviews work for you.

So, if you’ve ever been rejected, or if you are afraid of rejection – keep the above-discussed points in mind. They will not only help you overcome the rejection, but also ensure that you bounce back stronger, much stronger. Also, if you’re looking to get started with tech interview preparations, Coding Ninjas offers online interview preparation courses where you can get yourself enrolled to cover all bases.  

Placement talk with Chhavi!

A journey which helped to enhance my skills and confidence !

Chhavi Jain _1

Her amazing experience and what she loved!

I got myself enrolled in the online courses at Coding Ninjas. The best part about this institute is its instructors. The way they all teach is really engrossing and you learn everything pretty well. The course content is nicely structured to make the learning curve smooth. The platform and user interface are also amazing. I personally feel grateful to the team because I have learnt a lot in the last one year from Coding Ninjas.

Interview experience

It consisted of 3 tech rounds where the interviewers asked questions on Data Structures, Algorithms and Operating Systems mainly. There were detailed discussions on the project work also.

Advice to Current Students!

Coding is a skill that can be mastered only through regular practice. There is no shortcut to it. Developing the right way to approach a problem and solving it methodically would give you a solid foundation.

How will you introduce Coding Ninjas to your friends?

I know how difficult it can get for a beginner to explore a new field or learn something from the basics. For people struggling similarly, I definitely suggest you join the relevant course at Coding Ninjas. The lucid manner in which the instructors teach take you up to the advanced level. I had taken up Cognizance, Triumph and Eminence. All these courses have really shaped up my skills and given a confidence boost.

Thank you for constant support and guidance!

Four mini-projects for Python beginners


Learning a new programming language is both exciting and humbling. Especially when it’s a language having as varied use cases as python. So, if you’re on your way to learning python, it’s crucial for you to try your hands on some projects. For a fresher, it makes sense to try out some mini projects before you get your hands really dirty.

So, here’s a list of five mini projects for you to improve your Python skills:

  1. Mad Libs Generator

    This project is inspired by Summer Son’s Mad Libs project based on JavaScript. The program first prompts a user for a series of inputs a la Mad Libs. For example, an adjective, a collective noun, etc. Then, when all the information has been inputted, the program takes that data and places them into a story template.

For this, you’ll need to learn how to use prompts for the user input, and print the full story at the end with all the inputs included. This requires a command on the following concepts:




This one’s a pretty fun project that teaches you how to manipulate user-inputted data. As opposed to the prior projects, this is focused more on strings and their concatenations. See what crazy stories you can come up with!

2. Hangman

The actual “hangman” part isn’t really necessary. The main goal here is to create a “guess the word” kind of a game. The user will input letter guesses, you’ll need to limit the number of guesses a user can make.

This means, you’ll randomly grab a word to use for guessing – this can be done from a pre-made list. Then, you’ll need functions to see if the user has entered a singler letter and if that letter is a part of that word. And if it is, then how many times does it appear in the word.

For this, you’ll require the following concepts:

Input and Output

  1. Bootcamp

This will help you dive deeper in your Python programming knowledge. The framework that you’ll need here is the Django framework.

Bootcamp is basically a concept of an enterprise social network. It can be used to help developers or people belonging to one community collaborate and share experiences better. Its motive is to be closed and run inside a company only.

The whole idea will be to have a simple feed, just like Twitter. It will allow users to share links and post their thoughts and also keep track of everyone else in their community. It can also have a QnA section like StackOverflow where developers can post questions related to the business, software, or projects.

Here are a few things that you should definitely include as a part of your Bootcamp project:

Feed App (A Twitter-like microblogging platform)

– Live feed updates

– Comments and likes

– Track comments and activities

Articles App: this can be a collection of resource relevant to the users of the Bootcamp application. It can be a separate section other than the news feed which will contain all the necessary articles.

QnA app (a StackOverflow-like platform)


– Simple async messages

– Tracking of read/unread

Search app: to help users search through their feed.

  1. Machine Learning Gladiator

Machine Learning Gladiator is one of the fastest ways to build practical intuition around ML.

The goal of this project will be to take the out-of-the-box models and apply them on different data sets. This project is completely amazing, especially for beginners, for three main reasons:

First, you’ll get to build intuition for model-to-problem fit. This will help you understand which models are robust to missing data? Which models handle categorical features nicely? Ofcourse you can read through the theory and find the answer, but it’s always better to learn by seeing things in action.

Second, the project will help you acquire the invaluable skill of prototyping models in real-time. When it comes to real-world problems, it’s often difficult to know which model will work best for you without trying it out.

Finally, this project helps you master the workflow of model building. You’ll get to practice:
– Importing data
– Cleaning data
– Splitting it into train/test or cross-validation sets
– Pre-processing
– Transformations
– Feature engineering

Because you’ll use out-of-the-box models, you’ll have the chance to focus on honing these critical steps.

For this project, you can use the following data sources:

UCI Machine Learning Repository – It contains a collection of more than 350 searchable datasets that cover almost every subject matter. You’ll surely find datasets that fit your need.
Kaggle Datasets – This contains more than 100 datasets uploaded byt he kaggle community. There are some really interesting datasets here, including PokemonGo spawn locations.

All of these projects are pretty basic, and can get you up and running in the world of Python programming. Further, if you find yourself stuck anywhere while trying to develop these games, do drop by at Coding Ninjas where there are courses around Python. These courses cover the concepts of Python with data structures, and are good enough to take you from ground zero to the top.

Happy learning!

Career Opportunities after mastering Ruby on Rails


Ruby on Rails (RoR) is a technology which is fresh and gaining fair attention in the market. Ruby on Rails is predominantly a server-side web application framework written in Ruby. Rails offer a default arrangement for a database and web pages. Ruby on Rails is more celebrated these days than it was 5-6 years ago. So, techno-enthusiasts are quite interested and keen to absorb and master this web technology.  

Ruby on Rails was initially released in 2005 which inspired and influenced web application development through its groundbreaking and modern features related to the database.  Ruby on Rails has kits which reliefs the difficult web development tasks. One such feature is, ‘scaffolding’ that can spontaneously build various prototypes required to run an elementary website. Due to its out-of-the-box features, it is making its own unique path and gaining popularity among the developers.

Ruby on Rails has several tools which include less coding and more creativity. Developers will enjoy while experimenting with the tools which will give anchors to new ideas and enhance them. In this framework, there is an independence of using new layouts and therefore it increases the horizon of learning new things along with giving utmost satisfaction in the career.

There is a huge demand and competition in the market for developers who have fluency in trending programming languages. And surprisingly, the developers who have mastered the framework of Ruby on Rails get a bigger package than any other developer. So, it is a good career option for the people who are planning to jump into the application and development field. Ruby on Rails is gradually becoming one of the most popular web app frameworks. At this rate, the demand of RoR developers is going to increase indelibly. Many firms like Scribd, Twitter, EBay etc. have already made the most of this technology and are quite satisfied with the results. Similarly, smaller organizations are preparing to switch and join the RoR fan crowd.

It literally pays to know Ruby on Rails. This can be justified very well because according to Indeed, the average salary for RoR is higher than 86% of the average salaries of other companies. This is pretty impressive for a decade old technology. We can only imagine the number of career options it has opened up for the youth. Developers of RoR get paid more even for entrance level posts. This is also because of the fact that Ruby on Rails’ framework works on an open source dais, the companies don’t have to invest a lot in this technology.  

In a nutshell, there are several Ruby on Rails jobs for the youth who have mastered the art of this framework like, junior programmer, co-developer and high-level jobs such as, Project Lead, Chief Technology Officer and Senior Developer. The requirement for the Ruby on Rails developers has increased by several times in the former years. This skillset can prove to put an extra star on the developer’s resume. This is a type of technology in which the coders and developers can easily jump in without having the fear of growth and finances.

5 AI and ML startups hiring in 2018


Elon Musk had once stated that “AI will be the best or worst thing ever for humanity.

And today, we’re witnessing the many, many, marvels of Artificial Intelligence that are ruling our lives. From the IT sector to banking and fintech, from healthcare to education, from e-commerce to the business sector – AI has penetrated every major industry across the globe. The pace at which AI is escalating is simply stunning. Since 2000, the number of AI startups has increased by 14 times, and since 2013, the number of jobs demanding AI skills has grown by 4.5 times! Furthermore, Statista maintains that between 2017-22, the global market revenue of AI will grow by tenfold.

Moving on to the Indian AI startup scene, it can be safely said that the market is booming at an impressive pace. According to Inc42 Data Labs 2017 report, the AI startup sector saw a 100% increase in 2017 as compared to 2016 (with respect to deals attained and closed). Bengaluru takes the limelight here – nearly $88 million was obtained from over 58 deals in the AI sector.

Here are AI startups in India that have made their mark in 2018!

  1. is a Bengaluru-based startup founded by four ambitious alumni of IIT Kharagpur. It is essentially an AI-powered personal shopping assistant that helps users shop for products and services online by leveraging Natural Language Processing (NLP) technology. The services offered by span across twenty differentiated categories such as travel, entertainment, shopping, and much more.

It has partnered with many reputed brands including HDFC, BookMyShow, OYO, Redbus, Ola, and Uber, to name a few. Furthermore, it has obtained funding from business moguls like Ratan Tata and Ronnie Screwvala.

  1. Absentia VR

Another Bengaluru-based AI startup, Absentia VR is the creator of Norah AI – a revolutionary, state-of-the-art, AI-empowered workflow that allows for both game creation and incorporation of game elements for enhanced story weaving and texturing. At its core, Norah has AI, Deep Learning, and Neural Network.

It was founded in 2015 by three college dropouts from BITS Pilani with an aim to create the first unique AI gaming experience in India. Like, Absentia too has obtained funding from renowned investors including V. Balakrishnan, Girish Paranjpe, Astarc Ventures, Exfinity Venture Partners, and 50K Ventures.

  1. Innefu Labs

Innefu Labs is a Delhi-based AI startup that provides cybersecurity solutions including multi-factor authentication, biometric authentication, and Big Data analytics to both predict as well as prevent cyber threats. Rising cyber threats are a serious issue for companies today and to address this, Innefu has developed its patented security solution – AuthShield that leverages image and speech-based authentication system. AuthShield works something like this – if a user wishes to access an application/system, he/she first needs to click a selfie from the phone and speak a few words. The image and speech are then matched and verified with the user’s features by a 3D modeling pattern and if it matches, access is granted.

Innefu caters to the security needs of clients spanning across diverse industries such as the Indian Army, intelligence agencies, police departments, e-commerce, IT/ITES, telecom, BFSI, and BPOs, among others.

  1. NetraDyne

NetraDyne is a one-of-a-kind commercial vehicle technology provider headquartered in Bengaluru and San Diego. Its IoT-based product, Driveri combines AI and Deep Learning to identify and determine the causality of unfortunate accidents on the road by providing commercial fleets with real-time and meaningful data. With the data at their disposal, commercial fleets can detect risky driving and the possibility of unforeseen incidents and prevent it from happening by applying their resources promptly. The aim is to enhance commercial fleet safety.

In June 2016, NetraDyne obtained $16 million in funding from Reliance Industries Ltd. (RIL).

  1. Staqu

Staqu is a Gurgaon-based AI startup specializing in advanced image and video analysis, speech recognition, facial recognition, text processing, and language and text-independent speaker identification engine.

The core focus areas of Staqu include Deep Learning, NLP, Computer Vision, and image processing. Combining these innovative technologies together, Staqu aims to enhance a user’s mobile experience. The AI startup has developed a pioneering contextual content recommendation engine designed to provide in-platform and cross-platform recommendation facilities to smartphone companies while giving the users complete control of the platform too. Apart from a smart recommendation engine, Staqu also provides a robust security framework with fully-customizable facial and speech recognition features.

These are only five among the numerous AI startups that are rapidly transforming the AI scenario in India. As such innovative startups continue to rise and shine, it can be safely said that India’s future looks bright with AI!


An introduction to chatbots


If you are an active user of social media and messenger apps, you must be familiar with chatbots.

That’s precisely our topic of discussion today – Chatbots!

In the past two years, the entire experience customer service has scaled up a notch, thanks to chatbots. These interactive bots are now used by almost every major company like Facebook, Apple, Google, and Microsoft, to help customers interact with their brand on a personal level and know more about their products and services. In other words, chatbots have paved the way for a more personalized online experience.

According to Gartner, by 2020 nearly 85% of the customer interactions will be handled without any human assistance. How? Chatbots, of course!

Now, let’s get to the fundamental question:

What is a Chatbot?

To put it in the simplest of terms, a chatbot is a program or software that can communicate with you (and other humans too!).

But wait, don’t be mistaken. Although a chatbot is designed to communicate with humans, it is unfair and even unjustified to think that a chatbot can communicate with you exactly as a human would! For no matter how advanced a bot is, it is what it is – a bot. So, it’s better you don’t harbor any unrealistic expectations from a chatbot!

Chatbots are basically of two types:

Scripted (rule-based)

Scripted chatbots are bots whose behavior and functionality is determined according to a specific set of rules. Hence, any conversation with scripted chatbots will follow a predetermined course for they will know only how to answer according to the way they’ve been programmed. So, when you communicate with such a chatbot, its answers and options (voice, text, touch) will depend on its innate design and preset responses.

Intelligent (AI-powered)

Intelligent chatbots, as the name suggests, are intelligent. Being AI-powered, these chatbots are designed to learn and adapt from behavioral experiences. So, the more you interact with them, the smarter the bots become. For instance, if you wish to have the recipe of chocolate cake, the intelligent chatbot will surf the Internet and find all the best possible resources for a chocolate cake recipe for you! Unlike scripted chatbots, intelligent chatbots can accept any free form of input (text, speech, or image) and respond accordingly.

However, one thing to keep in mind is that both of these chatbot variants have their own limitations as the technology is still largely in its infancy.

History: The beginning of chatbots

The first breakthrough in this arena dates back to 1950 when Alan Turing and Joseph Weizenbaum imagined computers talking like humans and with that in mind, they developed the Turing Test – a test designed to distinguish a human from a machine.

However, it was only in 1966 that Weizenbaum programmed the first chatbot named ELIZA that could imitate the language and behavior of a psychotherapist. Another chatbot named PARRY came into the scene in 1972 and interaction with both ELIZA and PARRY had to be done in the form of texts. Voice operated chatbot came much later in 1988 with Rollo Carpenter’s Jabberwacky project.

Fast forward to the present day and we have some of the most developed and intelligent chatbots such as U-Report, Heston Bot, Nerdy Bot, ENO, and to name a few.

What does the future look like for chatbots?

The future of chatbots certainly seems bright now for people are now showing more inclination towards messenger apps than social networking apps.


So, businesses are naturally shifting to the messenger and chatbot domain than investing their time and resources on social media platforms. Chatbots now present a huge and emerging business opportunity for any and every individual who’s willing to leverage its potential.

Now the question is, are you ready to cash this opportunity?

Difference between a programming language and a scripting language


Often people use the terms scripting language and programming language synonymously, but these two terms have more difference than you know of. Although all scripting languages are programming languages, all programming languages are not scripting languages.

Earlier, programming languages were written to build products such as PowerPoint, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft Word, to name a few. However, as time passed, there arose a need to upgrade the programming languages to incorporate additional functionalities and provide an enhanced programming interface. Thus, scripting languages came into being. The primary difference between a scripting language and a programming language is in their execution – programming languages use a compiler to convert the high-level programming languages into machine language, on the other hand, scripting languages use an interpreter. While a compiler compiles a code in a complete chunk, an interpreter compiles a code line by line.

Let us now look at some of the major differences between a programming language and a scripting language.


A programming language is essentially a formal language that combines a set of instructions that can be fed into the computer to generate a specific output. A scripting language is a programming language that supports scripts which are programs written exclusively for a special runtime environment to automate the execution of a specific action/function.


Programming languages are compiled into a more compact design that does not require to be interpreted by another language or application. Scripting languages are written in one language and interpreted within another program, for instance, JavaScript has to be incorporated within HTML which will then be interpreted by the Internet browser. Thus, programming languages run independently of a parent program, but scripting languages run inside another program.


Programming languages are designed to facilitate a full-fledged code and software development whereas scripting languages are specifically designed to make coding faster and much simpler.


Coding with programming languages is relatively difficult as many lines of code are required for a single function. Creating a code function with a scripting language is easier as it requires only a few short and specific lines to be written. Thus, writing a  full-fledged code with programming languages usually take a longer time to develop as more lines need to be written while coding with a scripting language requires less time as smaller chunks need to be written.


Programming languages are divided into five subcategories: First generation, Second generation, Third generation, Fourth generation, and Fifth generation. Scripting languages have only two subcategories: Server-side scripting languages and client-side scripting languages.

Conversion and hosting

Since programming languages use a compiler, it is a one-shot conversion. Scripting languages, on the other hand, demand line by line conversion. Programming languages are self-executable; they do not require a host. Scripting languages require a host.


Compiled programs run generally run faster than interpreted programs since compilers read and analyze the code at once and report errors (if any) collectively. An interpreter, however, reads and analyzes a code line by line and every time it detects an error, it stops to address them one by one.


C, C++, C#, Java, Basic, COBOL, and Pascal, are some examples of programming languages. JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, Rexx, Ruby, GameMonkey, etc., are some of the most widely used scripting languages.


Overall, as we mentioned before, the execution process and environment are the primary differentiating factors between programming languages and scripting languages. Programming languages are used to develop applications and scripting languages are used to write code that can enhance and control application behavior.

So, now you know how programming languages differ from scripting languages, you’re ready to pick one for you. But again, you should keep in mind that the language you choose will depend entirely on your use-case and what you wish to accomplish with it. If you find yourself confused, don’t hesitate in visiting Coding Ninjas, where we have courses on programming languages including C++, Java, and scripting languages like Python, Ruby on Rails. We’ll ensure you reach all the way to the top, no matter where you start from!


Web-designing trends that have emerged (and won) in 2018


Web designing trends are always changing – old trends of yesterday make way for the emerging trends of today. And if you wish to be a successful web designer, you should try to keep up with the latest web design trends.

Here are some of the most popular web design trends that have emerged and gained traction in 2018!

  1. Animation

While it is a known fact that netizens display a greater affinity towards visual content, static images are outdated – animation and animated videos are the hottest buzzwords of the town.



With animated clips, animated images, and animated GIFs, you can attract the attention of your target audience while at the same time getting your POV across to them. Animated content makes your website look much more alive and interesting to the viewers.

  1. Chatbots


Lately, many online websites have begun to incorporate tiny pop-up windows on their landing page. These pop-up windows are called ‘chatbots’ that allow users to chat and communicate with the brand/company representative. So, whatever queries you may have, you can ask these chatbots and get an immediate response to your queries. Cool, isn’t it?


Chatbots are an excellent option to boost the real-time interaction with your customers and for online companies that have to answer customer queries on a daily basis. In such situations, you can program a chatbot to provide answers to certain commonly asked questions and for all other kinds of questions, the chatbot can be programmed to provide the next best assistance such as the details of how to get in a personal call with a company representative.

  1. Custom illustrations


We’re almost through 2018, and if you still think that incorporating stock images to your website is enough to engage your target audience with visual content, you are terribly mistaken.

It’s time to invest in custom illustrations!

People are not attracted to visual content blindly – they look for originality. Thus, if you customize your illustrations in accordance with your products and services, it creates a wonderful and unique experience for your viewers. And the great thing is that there are numerous apps and tools with which you can design brand-centric images and illustrations.

  1. Bold fonts


Fonts are one of the most underrated aspects of a website’s outlook, but if you are wise enough, you know that fonts cannot be ignored. Now, unique, bold, and neat fonts are apparently a big hit with the online audience.


By using a bold font in a neat layout design, you can draw more attention to the words on your web page. Web designers are, thus, increasingly resorting to Typography so as to impart the website’s textual content with more depth and gravity.

  1. Bold colors

What better than bold and vibrant colors to stand out in the crowd?



Web designers today are increasingly using bold and bright color combinations in websites to make them visually appealing. Bright yellows, fluorescents, purple, blue, and crimson, to name a few, have been some of the hottest color choices throughout the year. Add a dash of such colors to your text and voila – your website will be jazzed!

  1. Asymmetrical layouts

By now you must have understood that web design is all about innovation and unique presentation of content, be it textual or visual.



In the past, flat and symmetrical web design layouts were a hit. However, tables have turned now, and the recent shift is towards 3D and asymmetrical layouts. The reason behind this is that asymmetrical designs have a sense of unusual mystery to them which makes them unique and appealing to the onlooker’s eye.

  1. Floating navigation

Usually, websites have the navigation option fixed in one place on their landing page – the top corner. However, web designers are now experimenting with Floating Navigation, wherein the navigation bar is always accessible and visible, even if you are scrolling down across the page.



Not only is this innovative, but it’s also practical as you don’t have to keep scrolling up the page to access the navigation option.

Bottom line – all the emerging web design trends have one thing in common, that is, the end user (a viewer or a potential customer). The end goal here is to develop and incorporate such designs that make the web experience smooth and unique for the users.

So, if you’ve always wished to start off creating sweet designs for users, why not start today? Visit us at CodingNinjas, where we offer web development courses that ensure you’re on the right track from the day one!

So, which among these are you going to use next?


Music to get you in the programming groove


If there’s anything that coders around the world love to do (apart from coding of course!), it is listening to music. While their brains are busy sketching lengthy and complex codes, music acts as a food for their soul. In fact, most coders would agree that music helps create a soothing environment which in turn boosts productivity. It’s fun too, isn’t it? Plugging in your headphones, cutting off from the world, and immersing yourself into the coding dimension?

So, without further ado, let’s check out the most popular and trending music numbers that’ll help get your creative juices flowing!

The Social Network Soundtrack

If you’ve witnessed the charm of this Academy Award-winning film, you probably know how awesome its musical score and soundtracks are! Needless to say, Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross did a wonderful job in creating the overall mood of tension and intensity with an amalgamation of electronics and bass. While all the soundtracks from the movie are commendable, make sure you listen to Hand Covers Bruise first!

Tron: Legacy Soundtrack

The musical score of the Tron franchise (both the 1982 version and the 2010 version) is a huge hit among developers. While the original 1982 classic featured an 80s rock vibe with a strong synthpop style, Tron: Legacy features some really slick music by Daft Punk. The way Daft Punk used orchestral elements with electronic pop and digital sounds, it’s just mindblowing!

Hackers Soundtrack

Another movie that made to the list is Hackers. The 1995 movie features some very interesting and unique electronic numbers by bands like The Prodigy and Leftfield. The moment you plug in your headphones and play these electronic beats, you’ll realize how your work pace is also gaining an upbeat rhythm.

Now, moving on from films to some of the most loved bands, here are some of the gems that you must listen to!


Probably every developer knows the name of this massively popular English Rock band. In fact, today, it has almost gained a cult following among the developer community, and rightly so. Radiohead has given us a number of great songs such as Kid A, In Rainbows, Paranoid Android, Creep, High and Dry, Reckoner, There There, Let Down, Karma Police, to name a few.

God is an Astronaut

God is an Astronaut is an Irish post-rock band that features a unique mix of electronic music,  space rock, and krautrock. Some of the most popular soundtracks of the band include Forever Lost, Frozen Twilight, Ascend to Oblivion, All Is Violent All Is Bright, Fireflies and Empty Skies, Far From Refuge, Beyond the Dying Light, Coda, and much more.  

Boards of Canada

If you’re really into electronic music, Boards of Canada is the ideal match for you! Featuring the Scottish brother duo, Boards of Canada shot to fame with their debut album Music Has the Right to Children (1998). Their music includes sound elements like hip-hop breakbeats and vintage synthesizers. Some of their best songs are Dayvan Cowboy, Aquarius, Dawn Chorus, Turquoise Hexagon Sun, Peacock Tail, Everything You Do Is A Balloon, Chromakey Dreamcoat, and Music Is Math.


Robert Card, a.k.a. Blackmill is a famous dubstep producer hailing from the UK. His music is more of a musical dubstep which is sure to capture your attention if you are a fan of the dubstep genre. Let It Be, Spirit of Life, Miracle, Evil Beauty, Lucid Truth, Fortune Soul, Rain, The Drift, and Sarajevo are a few popular hits by Blackmill.


Nujabes music, the brainchild of Jun Seba, is a mix of hip-hop and jazz. The instrumental beats and the blend of jazz with hip-hop will surely transport you to another dimension. The music is best known for creating a nostalgic and atmospheric mood. Here are some of the best songs by Nujabes – Gone Are The Days, F.I.L.O., Flowers, City Lights, Eclipse, Lady Brown, Imaginary Folklore, and World End Rhapsody.

So, are you ready to get rocking at work while listening to these sick beats?