The OOPS Concepts You Must Know


OOPS, or Object Oriented Programming System is one of the most popular programming architectures even today. It is used by software developers around the world owing to the many, many advantages that it offers. However, to be able to use OOPS to its full potential you need to have a fair understanding of its fundamental concepts.

So, we’ve prepared this informative guide to introduce you to some of the basic concepts of OOPS.

  1. Class

A class denotes a blueprint containing elements having certain common traits, that is, they perform the same functions, or they possess the same features. In other words, a class represents data with variables known as ‘fields’ and behaviors with functions known as ‘methods.’

In a class, the members (functions and variables) may either have productive behaviors or may be intended to perform specific actions along with member attributes. The members of a class can only be accessed by the corresponding class or its objects.  

  1. Object

While class denotes that model or prototype, an object is the actual player of a class, that is, an object is an instance of a class. Precisely, objects are variables of a user-defined data type class. The variables of a class contain the data and the functions perform specific operations based on the objects contained in a class.

  1. Inheritance

Often, solving complex programming problems requires you to build classes that possess certain common characteristics or behaviors. Thus, to avoid repetition you need to gather all the common characteristics within a single class known as the ‘parent class.’ Now, all the classes having similar features can ‘inherit’ the common traits from the parent class. This is called ‘Inheritance.’ Apart from inherited features from the parent class, the new classes can have their distinct fields and methods.

There also exists the concept of ‘multiple inheritances’ wherein some object-oreinted programming languages support the inheritance of specific features from multiple classes.

  1. Abstraction

Abstraction refers to the process of eliminating complexity by hiding the unnecessary details of the implementation from the user. This allows the user to apply a more complex logic on top of the given abstraction without even being aware of the underlying or hidden complexity.

  1. Encapsulation

Encapsulation refers to the process of bundling methods and data that function on the data contained within a single unit such as a class. There are two aspects of encapsulation – one is the restrict the access to particular fields and methods of a class and second is the merge similar data and methods.

It is often used to hide the internal representation of an object from the user which is known as ‘information hiding.’

  1. Interface

An interface is a programming protocol for two unrelated classes to communicate with one another. An alternative to inheritance, an interface defines the actions of objects. An interface is placed within its distinct file bearing the same name as the interface (in Capital) and ends with the familiar language extension, for instance, “.as”. The primary purpose of interfaces is to enable the computer to know what kind of properties a particular object should have and to enforce those properties on the object.

  1. Association

An association denotes any type of relationship between two objects. Precisely, it refers to the multiple associations between objects such as one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many. The objects may be instances of unrelated classes and they collaborate to accomplish their unique goals without manipulating the lifecycle of the other.

  1. Aggregation

Aggregation is nothing but a special type of association. It is a relationship where one object belongs to another object but despite that, they are both independent objects. It is also known as a “has-a” relationship.

  1. Composition

A composition is a relationship between two objects where one object is under complete control of the other, and hence, has no independent lifecycle. While it is similar to aggregation as in one object contains another object, unlike aggregation, the object contained cannot exist without the container object.  

  1. Polymorphism

In general terms ‘polymorphism’ refers to the ability to exist in multiple forms. However, in OOPS, the term polymorphism refers to the ability of a programming language to process objects differently in accordance with their data type or class. Thus, polymorphism is essentially a language’s ability to ‘redefine’ the methods for different derived classes.

While this is just a nudge to steer you in the right direction, there are many other concepts that you must learn to master OOPS. For now, starting with the basics would be the wise way to go. If guidance is what you seek, drop by at Coding Ninjas and we’ll get you covered with our wide array of courses in and around the most-used programming languages.

Competitive programming helps in bagging a better job. Here’s how!

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Competitive programming has become a worldwide trend among software developers and coders. It is both thrilling and challenging at the same time – the pressure of solving complex coding problems within a limited time and the thrill of being able to perform well! Today, competitive programming sites like TopCoder, Coderbyte, HackerRank, CodeChef, and so on are becoming hugely popular as more and more people are joining in to compete in their coding competitions.


While participating in coding competitions is not an absolute necessity, you should definitely give it a try. Why, you ask? Competitive programming has certain advantages that can help prepare you for coding interviews or better yet, to bag that prestigious job position in the company you’ve been dying to work for!

Let’s look at how competitive programming can help you become a better coder and also bag better jobs in the industry.

Makes You Faster And More Focused

The very essence of competitive programming is to be able to solve coding problems within an allotted time period. The more you participate in such competitions, the better and faster you get at solving problems quickly. Appearing in these contests regularly will enhance your coding skills and speed in solving problems. You will learn how to stay focused on the task because if you lose focus, you lose time, and ultimately, you lose the contest.

Makes You A Team Player

In competitive programming contests, you often have to work with other people on your team and come up with efficient solutions for specific tasks. As you start working with other people, you understand your core strengths and weaknesses as well as those of your team members too. You learn how to stay organized and well-coordinated even during stressful situations.

These qualities are what most companies look for in a potential candidate. However, one of the most compelling reasons to pursue competitive programming is that it provides you exposure.

You Are Being Watched!

Yes, when you enter the world of competitive programming, you are being observed by potential employers. Competitive programming is nothing short of a hunting ground for IT and Tech companies who are always on the lookout for talented, experienced, and well-learned software professionals. In fact, some of these contests are closely followed by industry magnates such as Apple, Google, and Facebook. So, if you are a dedicated and aspiring coder, participating in competitive programming challenges might someday turn out to be a big win for you. If you’re excellent at it, you might catch the attention of a reputed software company or an MNC.

Coding competitions are great for building the right foundation for cracking coding interviews. This is primarily because:

  • Both, coding contests and interviews will require you to have a good knowledge of computer science and data science concepts.
  • During both, you’ll have to write codes and find solutions to problems while adhering to the standard coding norms.

In coding interviews, however, you’ll not only be judged by the deftness of your problem-solving skills but also various other soft skills such as communication skills, team skills, cultural fit, and so on. Thus while, coding competitions are excellent for preparing yourself for the rigorous interview rounds, it alone does not guarantee that you’ll bag a job at reputed firms or companies. The greatest advantage of having a competitive coding background is that it’ll not only help you break the ice during coding interviews but it will also provide you an edge over your competitors.

Many success stories of competitive coders have come to the fore of how they bagged jobs at prestigious companies while leaving some of the top candidates with higher ranking CGPA behind them. For instance, Anudeep Nekkanti from Visakhapatnam bagged a job at Google. Passionate about coding, Anudeep states:


“My failure at IOPC 2012 made me start it. I thought I will do well in IOPC 2013 and stop programming. That is how I started it. Very soon I started to like it…My heart beat raises whenever I submit a solution. I get goosebumps. It was that fun that kept me going. Don’t do it, Play it. Enjoy it…Right now I am preparing for world finals. I am doing problems from various online judges like Topcoder, Codechef, Codeforces.”


So, that’s what we wanted to get across to you – start competitive coding and who knows you too might end up bagging a great job at an MNC just like Anudeep!

Most Commonly Asked ML Interview Questions


While Data is the new currency of the business and the industrial world, Data Science is the pathway to the next Industrial Revolution. The rising importance of data is creating a demand for skilled professionals who are well-versed in data science technologies such as Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). However, bagging a job in the field isn’t a walk in the park. You need to be prepared to face the challenging interview process during which your mastery over a variety of data skills will be assessed such as your basic knowledge about data science and ML concepts; your ability to analyze and visualize data; your technical and programming skills, and so on.

We know that interviews can be tricky and overwhelming, and hence, we’ve prepared a list of ten most commonly asked machine learning interviews questions.

  1. What is the difference between supervised and unsupervised machine learning?

The primary difference between supervised and unsupervised learning is that while supervised learning focuses on training labeled data unsupervised learning does not require the data to be trained explicitly. For instance, for the classification function of supervised learning, one first needs to label the data that will be used to train the data model to classify the data into labeled subsets. This kind of specialized training is not required in unsupervised learning.

  1. What are parametric and non-parametric models?

Parametric models refer to those models that contain a finite number of parameters. In such a model, one only needs to know the parameters of the model to be able to predict new data. Linear regression, logistic regression, Naive Bayes, and Perceptron, are some examples of parametric models. Non-parametric models, on the other hand, contain an unlimited number of parameters and hence, are more flexible. In this model, apart from knowing the parameters of the model you also need to be aware of the state of the observed data. Decision trees, SVMs, and k-nearest neighbors are examples of non-parametric models.

  1. Explain the bias-variance tradeoff.

Predictive models usually have a tradeoff between bias and variance. While bias refers to the error occurring due to erroneous or overly simplistic assumptions in the learning algorithm being used, the variance is the error occurring due to excessively complicated assumptions in the learning algorithm in question. The purpose of the bias-variance is to  minimize the learning error of a specific algorithm by adding the bias and the variance along with some other irreducible errors due that originate from the noise in underlying datasets. For instance, you can reduce the bias by adding more variables to the model to make it complex, but in the process, you’ll add some variance to the model. Thus, to strike a perfect balance in the model, you need to have a tradeoff between bias and variance.

  1. What is the difference between stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and gradient descent (GD)?

Both SGD and GD algorithms are techniques of finding a set of parameters that can reduce the loss function of a model. The parameters are first evaluated against the data, and then adjustments are made accordingly. However, there lies a subtle difference in the approach of the two algorithms. While in GD one needs to evaluate all the training samples for each set of parameters, in SGD you need to evaluate only one training sample for the given set of parameters. Also, GD is ideal for small datasets while SGD is ideal for more massive datasets.

  1. What is the purpose of the Box-Cox transformation?

The Box-Cox transformation is a standard power transformation process of transforming datasets to facilitate normal distribution. In other words, it is used to stabilize the variance in datasets. Since most well-known statistical methods sync well with normally distributed data, it is wise to normalize the distribution using this method.

  1. Why is Naive Bayes ‘naive’?

Naive Bayes is considered to be ‘naive’ mainly because it makes such assumptions that are nearly impossible to observe in real-life data. This algorithm assumes that the presence or absence of a particular feature of a class is unrelated to the presence or absence of any other feature of the class variable in question. This entails the “absolute independence of features,” a condition that can never be fulfilled in reality.

  1. What is the difference between machine learning and deep learning?

Deep learning is a branch of machine learning exclusively concerned with neural networks. It focuses on the ways to leverage certain principles of neuroscience to model large sets of unstructured or semi-structured data with increased accuracy. To be precise, deep learning is much like an unsupervised learning algorithm that aims to ‘learn’ data representations by leveraging neural nets.

  1. How will you choose a classifier based on a training set?

In case the training set is a small, models with high bias/variance, for example, Naive Bayes, are the best fit since they are less likely to overfit. Whereas if the training set is too large, models with low bias/variance such as logistic regression are best as they can detect more complex relations in data models.

  1. What is Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA)?

Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a generative model that represents documents as an amalgamation of topics, each of which has their distinct probability distribution of possible words. In other words, LDA is a technique of classifying topics or documents according to the subject matter.

  1. What is the ROC curve? What is AUROC?

The ROC (Receiving Operating Characteristic) curve is a graphical representation of the contrast between true positive rates and the false positive rate at varying thresholds. It’s mostly used to assess the sensitivity of the true positives against the false positives’ probability to trigger a false alarm.

AUROC (Area Under the Receiving Operating Characteristic) denotes a standard performance metric used to evaluate binary classification models.

Are you eager to master machine learning? Do you wish to begin a career in machine learning? Come, join our Machine Learning course at Coding Ninjas today!

Five Skills You Need To Become An ML Engineer


Today, cutting-edge technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), and Deep Learning are bringing in the age of Technological Revolution. These technologies are helping shape not just our present but also laying the foundations for a better tomorrow. Companies across the world are now investing in these technologies to foster innovation, thus creating the demand for skilled and talented data professionals.

Machine Learning is a branch of Artificial Intelligence that enables machines to perform advanced tasks like prediction, image/voice recognition, robotics control, and so on without being exclusively programmed for those tasks. ML technology is mainly algorithm-oriented, that is, it aims to create such algorithms as can ’learn’ from the behavior of data and adapt accordingly to produce the best possible outcomes. In this respect, ML is somewhat similar to data mining – both of these fields are interested in sifting through data to uncover valuable insights and patterns hidden within data. However, ML has the edge over data mining.

While aspiring to begin a career in Machine Learning is undoubtedly commendable, you must first develop the requisite skills that are demanded of machine learning specialists. Here are the five skills that every machine learning engineer should develop.

  1. Fundamental Concepts of Computer Science and Programming

If you wish to be an ML engineer, you need to have a strong background in Computer Science. You need to be well-versed with core concepts of Computer Science such as data structures (trees, graphs, stacks, multi-dimensional arrays, etc.), algorithms, computability and complexity concepts such as big-O notation, approximate algorithms, NP-complete problems, and much more. Then again, you need to have a flair for high-level programming languages such as C++, Java, R, Ruby, JavaScript, Python, Perl, etc.

  1. Probability and Statistics

Machine Learning is closely associated with Probability and Statistics. In fact, probability concepts such as conditional probability, Naive Bayes rule, Markov Decision Processes, Hidden Markov Models, etc., make up the core of various ML algorithms. Statistics, on the other hand, provides the foundation for distributions, measures, and analysis techniques that are required for building and analyzing data models.

  1. Data Modeling and Evaluation

Data Modelling is the technique of estimating the implicit structure of a particular dataset to extract meaningful information from the data and to predict hidden trends from within. In this process, you have to evaluate the relevance and efficacy of the data model continually and to do this you must choose such an accuracy measure and evaluation strategy that best fits the data model in question.

  1. ML Libraries

To be able to implement ML algorithms appropriately, you need to be familiar with ML libraries or APIs such as Theano, Spark, TensorFlow, and Scikit-learn, to name a few. However, for these APIs to function optimally, you need to have extensive knowledge about classification algorithms like decision trees, neural nets, support vector machines, etc. The more you practice with these algorithms and APIs, the better will be your grasp on machine learning. You can try ML challenges on platforms such as Kaggle that will introduce you to a vast range of complex algorithmic problems.

  1. Software Engineering and System Design

An ML engineer is a software engineer and machine learning expert rolled into one. Essentially, an ML engineer’s core task is to build innovative software. To develop a software, you need to learn how to integrate smaller fragments to create the bigger picture. Thus, the software you create should be compatible with your system design. It should be scalable, flexible, and efficient so that it can adapt according to the ever-mounting volumes of data.

While mastering these major skills is a must for building a career in Machine Learning, you must also never forget that it is still a developing field. Thus, it is important that you constantly update yourself with the latest trends and innovations in ML and upskill accordingly.

If you are interested in building a career in Machine Learning, our Machine Learning course – Cognizance is what you need. At Coding Ninjas, our expert and qualified panel of instructors will ensure that by the end of the course, you are fully aware of the nitty-gritty of machine learning.

Basic C++ Interview Questions


C++ is general-purpose, object-oriented programming (OOP) language that was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup. An extension of the C programming language, C++ combines the features of both low-level and high-level languages and is hence considered to be a hybrid, intermediate level programming language.

Even today, C++ is considered to be a requisite skill for CS students and engineers. It is one of the most challenging programming languages since when writing programs with C++, one has to do extensive thinking. Hence, to crack a C++ interview successfully, you must be well prepared.

To help you crack your next C++ interview, we’ve created a list of some of the most commonly asked questions during interviews.

  1. Name the basic components of OOP language?

The essential components of an object-oriented programming language are:

  • Objects
  • Classes
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Message passing
  • Dynamic Binding
  • Data abstraction and encapsulation
  1. How is C++ different from C?

Since C++ is an extension of C, most programs written in C are compatible with C++ too. The primary differences between the two languages are:

  • While C is a procedural programming language, C++ supports both procedural and OOP features.
  • As C++ is an OOP language, it supports features like inheritance, templates, classes, function overloading, and virtual functions, to name a few. C programming language is devoid of these functions.
  • While in C exception handling is done in traditional ‘if-else’ technique, in C++ exception handling is accomplished at the language level.
  • In C++ input and output operations are performed through streams (cin and cout), whereas in C, scanf() and printf() are used for input and output functions.
  1. What is inheritance?

Inheritance is the technique of deriving a new class known as ‘derived’ from an old class known as ‘base class.’ With the help of this process, you don’t need to write a code from scratch; you can reuse an existing code by modifying it.

  1. What are virtual functions?

Virtual functions are integrated with inheritance to ensure that the correct function has been deployed to point to a particular object. Instead of naming them according to the type of reference or pointer, virtual functions are named according to the kind of object being referred to. The functions are named with a virtual keyword in the base class.

  1. What are the C++ access specifiers?

Access specifiers define how functions and variables (members) can be accessed outside of a given class. They can be classified into three types:

  • Private: The functions and variables that are labeled as ‘private’ can be accessed only within the same class and not outside their declared class.
  • Public: When members are labeled as ‘public,’ they can be accessed from anywhere.
  • Protected: Protected members can be accessed only by the declared class its child classes.
  1. Define Friend class and Friend function in C++.

A friend class can access both private and protected members of other classes in which it is specified as a friend. For instance, a LinkedList class may be declared as a friend of Node to access the private members of Node.

Like a Friend class, a Friend function can be granted access to private and protected members of other classes. A friend function can either be a method of another class or a global function. It should be kept in mind that Friend classes and functions should be used only for specific purposes to prevent the drop in the encapsulation value of different classes in OOP.

  1. What is s Static Member?

Static Member is a keyword in C++ that is used to bestow unique characteristics to a specific element. Static members cannot be virtual, and they also do not possess ‘this’ pointer. Static elements are allotted a storage space in the static storage area. While they need to be stored only once in a program lifetime, their life scope equals the program lifetime.

  1. What is a default constructor?

Default constructors are those that do not accept any parameters. For instance, if a default constructor is needed in a particular class (say, class A) where there exists no user-defined constructor, the compiler will implicitly declare a default constructor without any parameter – A::A(). This constructor is devoid of any constructor initializer and a null body.

  1. What are tokens?

Tokens are the smallest individual units of a program written in C++. They are as follows:

  • Identifiers
  • Constants
  • Keywords
  • Strings
  • Operators
  1. What is an iterator class?

Iterator class allows you to access classes that are inside containers that hold data structures, classes, and abstract data types. Iterators are crucial to understanding the functioning of C++ Standard Template Library (STL) since it offers a way to access data stored in the container classes, for example, maps, list, vector, and so on.

Want to get an in-depth understanding of C++ and its underlying concepts? Join Coding Ninjas today! Our trained and dedicated team of instructors will ensure that by the time you finish the course, you’ve mastered the art of C++.

7 Rookie Mistakes Every Android Developer Should Avoid


Ever since Android took over the market by storm, it has emerged as one of the most lucrative platforms for app developers. And thanks to the Internet, developers can now access a host of cheap app development tools and connect with the massive online community of developers. While there never has a better time to become an Android app developer, one must keep in mind that developing mobile applications is quite different from developing web apps. When freshers in Android app development make the shift from desktop to mobile, they often end up making some common mistakes that affect the overall efficiency of their apps.

We’ve compiled a list of seven common rookie mistakes that every Android developer should avoid.

  1. Ignoring The Android Documentation

The Android Documentation is the holy grail for every Android developer because it comprises of numerous helpful tutorials, training videos, informative guides, and other essentials necessary for building Android apps. Thus, if you choose to ignore the Android documentation, you will miss out on expert tips and tricks to develop steady and reliable Android apps. You can either download the documentation with the help of SDK tools or read it online.

  1. Not Building The Compatibility Quotient With Android Tools

Android SDK is replete with helpful tools that help you build great apps. While some tools allow you to create innovative designs and excellent layouts, there are also command line tools that can be used to gain easy access to the device hardware and emulators. Apart from this, Android SDK also consists of tools that help you enhance the performance of your apps and fine tune them. As an Android developer, if you do not familiarize yourself with these tools, you’ll not only have to put in more time and effort, but also you’ll miss out on enormous opportunities to improve your app.

  1. Not Connecting With The Android Community

While building apps, you cannot expect the process to be seamless and free from challenges. There will come times where you may find yourself stuck at a particular step and cannot figure out what to do. Instead of cracking your head incessantly over the issue, reach out to the helpful and proactive Android developer communities such as StackOverflow. You can also try other resources such as Google mailing lists and tutorials available on Android Development Center.

  1. Thinking Android Development Can Be Accomplished In A Jiffy

If you think that developing mobile applications is a matter of little time and effort, you are mistaken. Like web apps, mobile app too requires innovative and functional specs and hence, you need to incorporate advanced bug monitoring system, QA testers, and a release/maintenance strategy for Android apps. The aim is to build apps that are completely optimized for mobile devices and can run seamlessly on Android, and this requires dedicated effort.

  1. Not Integrating The OS Correctly With The Android Platform

One of the most exceptional features of the Android platform is that it offers numerous choices to developers to integrate an app not just with the system but also other apps. As a developer you must ensure that your app is adequately integrated with the OS and hence, you need to stress on small features such as content providers, home screen widgets, intent signals, and so on. When you take care to integrate such tiny details into your app, you create a unique user experience for your users.

  1. Vaguely Defining The App Configuration Details

Often it so happens that app developers do not publish or update the information about app configuration in the Android Manifest. When marketing an app, it is fundamental to enlist all the details about the app features and the device traits they support. Also, developers often demand unnecessary permissions on the Android Manifest, which can lead to faulty app publication on the Android app market, ultimately causing a drop in the user ratings.

  1. Leaving Apps Idle After Launching Them

If you wish to stay relevant in the app market, you just cannot leave your apps idle. Applications must be continuously updated to improve user experience, eliminate bugs and glitches, and to the enhance their overall efficiency. When you do not update and maintain your apps, they fail to keep up with the dynamic trends in the market.

So, now that you know what mistakes you should avoid while developing Android apps, you can steer clear of such pitfalls. And if you wish to step up your app development game, join the Coding Ninjas advanced Android app development course – Envision, today!

Competitive Programming And The Edge It Offers


Competitive programming is a sport in which aspiring programmers compete with participants from around the world or from a local area to try to solve complex algorithmic problems according to a specified set of rules. It has gained a lot of attention over the years, and today, competitive programming is hosted and supported by the magnates of the IT industry such as Apple, Google, and Facebook.

There are many benefits of competitive programming. Developers across the globe unanimously agree that competitive programming helps you become a better developer and provides you with an edge over your competitors. Let’s look at the benefits of competitive programming.

  1. Helps You Stay Focused To Find Solutions Faster

In a competition, you have to compete against several participants, and hence, there remains a significant amount of pressure on you. As you actively take part in such contests, you gradually tend to improve your performance under stressful conditions by learning how to stay focused and concentrated on your tasks. You become more disciplined, and ultimately you can find faster and accurate solutions.

  1. Developing Bug-Free Codes

As you participate in competitive programming contests, over time, you become familiar with specific bugs that hinder the efficacy of your codes. For instance, issues like array indices growing out of bounds, floating point precision, and so on. The more you solve, the better you become at overcoming these obstacles. Since you are faced with complex algorithmic problems in these competitions, you learn how to optimize your code for the best outcomes.

  1. Prepares You For A Career In Coding

Participating in coding contests introduces you to a whole new world of programming, complex problems, and puts your programming skills to test. These competitions are an excellent way of upskilling. When you participate in contests, you get to know your key strengths and weaknesses. So, you get a chance to work on your weaknesses and come back with confidence the next time. Eventually, you’ll realize that you’ve already mastered the things that are essential for building a successful career in coding.

  1. Inculcates The Virtue Of Teamwork

In competitive programming, you are required to collaborate with your team members to solve the tasks handed to you. When working as a team, you learn how to open up to the ideas of your teammates, you learn new approaches to solve problems, and most importantly, you learn how to function as one unit by compensating for one another’s weaknesses. As a team, you learn to divide the responsibilities among yourselves and help find the most efficient way to complete your task. Companies today highly value the virtue of team spirit. Thus, if you know how to function efficiently within a team, chances are that you’ll land a good job at a reputed company.

  1. You Become A Desirable Candidate

Our world is increasingly becoming a technology-driven world where the demand for skilled programmers and software developers is ever on the rise. Competitive programming is the perfect hunting ground for large software MNCs to find talented and versatile coders. As we’ve mentioned before, companies like IBM, Apple, Facebook, and Google actively follow these contests. So, participating in them will bring you under their radar. And if you emerge as a winner, your chances of being hired by a good company increases manifold.

Other than the benefits discussed above, competitive programming also gives you an edge over your competitors in any coding interview you can think of. Being quick to come up with the most efficient solution is something that will set you apart from your peers and it can be mastered through thorough competitive programming!

So, how about giving competitive programming a try? If you find yourself struggling, hop right in at Coding Ninjas where our specialized online course on Competitive Programming will get you up and running!

8 reasons why Ruby should be your first language!


Every aspiring programmer is faced with one fundamental question – “Which programming language should I begin with?”

While Java – one of the most widely used programming languages in the world – is backed by a massive developer community, Ruby on Rails (RoR) is rapidly gaining traction among the developer community. But first, don’t harbor the misconception that Ruby on Rails is the same as Ruby. RoR is a software development framework specially designed to support Ruby. Essentially, RoR is an assortment of unique shortcuts written in Ruby that allow developers to build web applications much more quickly and efficiently. Websites such as Basecamp, Airbnb, Twitter, Scribd, Groupon, Kickstarter, Soundcloud, Shopify, Crunchbase, and Slideshare are all built on Ruby!

Here are ten reasons why Ruby on Rails should be your preferred choice of programming language.

  1. Open Source

RoR is an open source framework that offers perks like free licensing and free downloading of source codes. Furthermore, RoR is compatible with all operating systems and browser.

And if that’s not enough for you, RoR is backed by an enormous and active developer community. From conferences and meetups to online forums like Stack Overflow, you are sure to find RoR developers at every major tech event and hackathons you visit. So, if you are ever stuck anywhere, you could always reach out to the RoR community.

  1. Beginner-Friendly

The fact that Ruby has a pretty simple syntax makes it the ideal programming language for beginners. Not only is it very logical, it also comes with an excellent readability quotient. It enables you to write codes without adding separate comments or help texts within your code. Thus, it is undoubtedly one of the most beginner-friendly programming languages one can ever come across.

  1. Enhances Productivity

RoR is a self-documenting software framework, and hence, developers belonging from any programming platform can choose a RoR project and easily understand its content. Also, the code readability of RoR is excellent. It allows web developers to concentrate on specific issues rather than altering the framework, thereby promoting speedy development solutions.

Overall, RoR increases the productivity of developers, allowing them to launch web applications way more conveniently within a short span of time.

  1. Flexible With Full-Stack Tools

RoR is well-integrated with tools that allow developers to modify codes of existing web apps. Whether you want to add new features or make alterations in data models, RoR makes everything easy. Furthermore, RoR framework facilitates both front and back-end development. Thus, with RoR you can design a complete web application without having to delegate the front-end or back-end development task to anyone else.

Additional bonus – when you learn to code with RoR, you are introduced to HTML/CSS, Javascript, and of course Ruby.

  1. Fast

Apart from being a beginner-friendly platform, RoR is comparatively faster than other development frameworks because:

It allows web developers to reuse existing code thereby eliminating the need to developing a code from scratch.

RoR strictly follows the motto of ‘Convention over Configuration.’ It offers a plethora of resourceful libraries having pre-designed templates that allow developers to add any functionality within their codes. This way it saves a significant amount of time of developers that they would end up spending on configuring setup files.

Ruby is an open source OOP language that allows developers to utilize the vast library of source code templates of the RoR community framework.

  1. Cost Efficient

As mentioned before, RoR is an open source framework with no license charges. It consists of all automation tools that can help eliminate a lot of tasks associated with development projects. Thus, it a very cost-efficient and powerful tool not only for web developers but also for SMB projects.

  1. Facilitates Good Development

RoR is founded on the principles of proper web development. It encourages responsible web designing and development practices, that is the three ‘C’s – Compact, Clean, and Comprehensive coding practices. Moreover, RoR fosters Representational State Transfer (REST). Hence, developers can use RoR to organize their web applications based on standard resources and HTTP texts.

  1. It Scales Seamlessly

Given that the ultimate aim of every website is to gain visitors, RoR framework is perfect for accomplishing this. Since REST architecture is deeply ingrained in the Rails framework, scalability is not an issue with RoR. REST ensures that your website connects seamlessly with your potential audience. Dispelling all misconceptions about scalability on RoR framework, Tobias Lutke, CEO of Shopify states:

“It’s crazy that people are suggesting Shopify has been successful despite rails. Shopify has been successful because of rails!”

Come and aboard the Ruby train with us! We offer comprehensive programmes around Web Development using Ruby on Rails. Our courses are designed to start from scratch and take you all the way to the top. Still confused?! Check out our courses now!

Here’s why programming is more about the logic/algorithms and less about the language.


Let us begin with the story of Raj.

Raj had just passed his high school exams with flying colours, and had taken admission in Computer Science in one of the most prestigious institutions in the country. Now, Raj hadn’t done much of coding in his previous years, yet he still took up CS. Was this a bad decision? By no means. What Raj lacked was the knowledge of syntax and rules of programming languages. What he had in abundance, however, was the ability to think, to analyse problems, and to craft creative solutions to these problems. This led to him being able to understand more, and in turn, score more than his peers who were supposedly better programmers than he was.

Programming is more or less based on this very same concept.

“One must not only learn how to code. One must learn how to think and analyse.”

Freshers in the field of programming almost certainly believe that once they master the rules and syntax elements of a particular programming language, they would become good programmers. This is true to an extent, as it would definitely make them good coders, but it will not make them good problem solvers.

The Sudoku Puzzle.

Taking the example of a Sudoku puzzle, you know how and where to write numbers in boxes. But how would you solve the puzzle if you do not know the underlying logic behind the game? How would you complete a computer game successfully if you know just the control bindings, but not the hows and whys of the tasks to be performed?

Problem Solving “using” computers.

Computer Science and programming is all about solving our day to day problems with the help of computers. If you focus a little more on the latter part of the previous line, you would certainly realise the essence of this article- “with the help of computers”, the key words being with the help of. Computers and programming languages are just tools to aid us in applying our thinking and logic towards solving particular problems. Coding is not a method to achieve a particular task, it is simply a tool to make it quicker.

Learning new ways to solve problems, studying new algorithms, applying various forms of logic, and developing an innate way of thinking is what programming is all about. It is not about the language, the rules, and certainly not about putting a semicolon at the end of each line of code. Logic matters more than the programming language that you choose.

Tweaking with the languages.

The logic behind the method of finding the largest number in a given set of numbers will always remain the same, irrespective of whether you code it in C++ or in Python. If you are clear with your core programming concepts, you can easily migrate from one language to another. All that will take is memorizing the syntax of the new language, and voila! You will now be able to write code in both R and Python!

Remember- the underlying logic behind performing a task is of far greater importance than performing the task itself. If you don’t know how to do a task, how in the world of all that’s holy will you finish that task?

Learn to think. Coding comes naturally to good thinkers. Bon voyage on your journey through the programming realm!

Five tips for front-end web development


Don’t you just love exploring beautiful and neat sites with a clean user interface? While most of us would reply with an assertive ‘YES,’ little, do we know the kind of effort and skill that goes into making a website attractive and user-friendly. The secret to creating an impressive site is to master the art of front-end development, and no, it is not as easy as it seems!

However, it is not impossible either.  Here are five tips that’ll help you get better in front-end design and web development.

  1. Automate!

As a front-end developer, you already have to take care of minute little details that can get overwhelming at times. You have to invest your time on things like Boilerplate, testing, workflow, dependency management, performance, optimization, build, deployment, and so on. Doesn’t sound easy, right?

Take some steam off yourself and incorporate automation into your workflow. While automation can take care of things such as optimization, testing, etc., you can focus on the core areas of front-end development such as HTML, CSS, creating the client-side software, enhancing the user-experience, and so on. By doing so, not only will your productivity increase, but you will also learn to use your time to focus on the areas that’ll improve the overall functionality of your site.  Grunt, Gulp, and Broccoli are some very efficient automation tools.

  1. Refactor Your Code From Time To Time.

By “refactoring” your code, you’re only enhancing the code without tampering with its functionality. This will improve the quality and readability quotient of your code and the more often you do it, your code will continually be updated into a cleaner and fresher version of what it was before. Apart from that, one of the most significant advantages that refactoring offers is that it ensures your code remains free from plagiarism.

  1. Learning Command Line Is The Way To Go.

It is a standard convention among developers to use GUI tools to power the terminal. What most of them don’t realize is that by doing so, they end up spending a significant portion of their valuable time in handling GUI tools than making progress on the terminal. The right way to go about it is learning the command line. Start with the basics of the command line and advance to higher levels as you go, and you’ll find that you can complete several tasks with much more ease and efficiency with command line tools than with GUI tools. Moreover, automating the terminal with appropriate commands is a great way to save time and energy.

  1. Invest In Productive Tools.

The Internet is teeming with a host of web development tools, from browser add-ons to smart plugins, the amount of choices available now is massive! So, why not invest in some really productive web tools that’ll help you improve your front-end designing skills? Tools like Sublime Text, jQuery, Emmet, GitHub, Bootstrap, and Sass are nothing short of a godsend for web developers.

  1. Always Be Curious.

A front-end developer has to keep himself/herself updated continuously with the latest news and innovations in the field. You need to take a proactive stand and learn new things about front-end development from informative blogs and videos. CSS Weekly, HTML5 Weekly, JavaScript Weekly, Web Design Weekly, Codrops, and ShopTalk Podcast are some of the most informative and useful learning sources for front-end developers. Also, make it a point to attend conferences and webinars. These meet-ups provide excellent opportunities to expand your network and get acquainted with talented people.
While these tips will surely help you become a better front-end designer, in the long run, you must always remember two things while designing your platform – keep it simple and neat, and don’t forget to create your signature style. And for all you peeps interested in making it big in front-end development, Coding Ninjas has the perfect course for you! To know more, drop by at our website.